The economic sizes of countries are evaluated using parameters such as annual growth, inflation, unemployment, exchange rate, interest rate, and budget balance and population movements. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) criterion is used as an economic indicator for countries. Instead of GDP, the “purchasing power parity (PPP)” has been put into use for economic rankings of countries. This criterion is the expression of the purchasing power of the country’s income which removes the price differential effects between the countries. In this case, cross-country rankings of Turkey for 2017, will be evaluated, instead of GDP (793.698 billion US $), with PPP (US $ 2082.079 billion US $.
The Guardian has prepared a graph-charts (see the figure), based on the World Bank, IMF and PwC data. The first three columns, namely the first block, rank the economy according to the year 2009 of the top 20 countries. In the last three columns in the second block, ranking belong to the estimates of the same countries for the year 2050.
The way in which the sequences of the countries in the two blocks change, can be easily interpreted by following the directions of the green and pink lines between the two blocks. For example, countries like USA, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and Spain all; (the pink lines) went down to lower levels in the second block in the year of 2050. In contrast, China, India, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and Indonesia are placed in much higher order in in the second block. In this case, it could be assumed that, the G7 will be represented not by the rich western countries, but by the new countries, such as Brazil, Russia, India, China and Mexico, which are predominantly developing countries of today.
Considering the general characteristics of the countries, which are raising their rank to the top; population growth, increases in physical and human capital and the use of science and advanced technologies are clearly visible. Undoubtedly, every country tries to do its utmost to develop in all sectors. Some countries, however, focus on specific sectors and are stripped away. Let’s take a look at performances of BRIC countries (Brazil, China, India and Russia) for agricultural sector (https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2016/03/07/ future-crop-biotechnology-brazil-china-bric-nations/):
BRAZIL: This country, which raised her agricultural exports from US $ 17 billion in 2001 to $ 97 billion in 2011, reaps the fruits of technological and research agenda. Curiously, by combining public, university and private sectors under a single roof (EMPRAPA), Brazil has made great strides in agriculture with a law that they dictate in time. Acidic saviors have gone through the path of soil rehabilitation, where they have used the African meadow grass “brachiaria” as genetic material to obtain highly efficient varieties for their own meadow pasture. So slaughtering weight of cattles, have been reduced from four year to 20 months. With the new cattle herds bred from the Indian “zebra” race, Brasilia becomes a world leader in red meat markets.
As the first country of transgenic varieties developer after the US, it cultivates transgenic soya, maize and cotton. Further, using agriculture biotechnology intensively, many commercial plants like sugar cane, beans, papaya, potatoes and some species of trees are in the field trials, which is the last phase to registration for commercial cultivation.
CHINA: China, which has made the most public investment in agricultural research in the world, has achieved results in agricultural biotechnology in 2004 and has introduced its own transgenic cotton varieties. The private sector is also about commercializing biotech poplar, papaya, tomato, pepper varieties. The developed transgenic rice variety, resistant to insect damage was registered also in the USA in 2018.
INDIA: this country granted approval for transgenic cotton cultivation in 2003. Following year 93% of 11.6 million hectares were planted with biotech varieties. Thus, while the yield was increased by 34-42%, insecticide costs were reduced by 50% and farmer deaths from spraying in the cotton field decreased by 88%.
RUSSIA: This country is a late comer in biotechnology. Lately Putin signed a package, which will be implemented in two phases in 2012-2015 and 2016-2020. The main objective of a 1.18 trillion rubles program is benefiting from the advantages of biotechnology, which is important in the world.
Numbers of countries like Turkey have banned their farmers to benefit from this value-added improvement of agricultural biotechnology. Turkey imports the products (for feed industry) of other countries and supporting their farmers as it was in the colonial times. This prohibition has resulted in scientific researches, so effective that, in this country “the leaves are not moving” in agricultural biotechnology. However, the Pakistani government has genuinely ordered an international company a “GEN” for the development of transgenic varieties for all its own seed companies freely.
Some countries, such as Spain, Italy and South Korea couldn’t maintain their 2009’s place in 2050’s rank. It is obvious that, the rank prediction for 2050’s based on the present-day data. The reason might be that, they are still unable to prove their economic breakthrough in order to ensure technological improvements with sufficient innovation for 2050’predictions.That does not mean they will not make enough progress in the next decades. It is expected that, in order to increase the annual development rate every country, will do its utmost to improve all its capabilities.